The Shoshone-Paiute Duck Valley Indian Reservation occupies over 450 square miles in Nevada and Idaho. Prior to European American settlement of the region, however, traditional Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute territories occupied most of present-day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, Utah, and California. The Duck Valley Indian Reservation was established by Executive Order in 1877 and expanded through 1910. The tribal government, today’s Duck Valley Indian Reservation Business Council, was formed following adoption and congressional approval of a constitution and bylaws in 1936.
Ranching and farming are long-time economic mainstays on the reservation. Tribal governments successfully obtained water rights and orchestrated construction of three main reservoirs and water delivery and control structures. Beginning in 1884 with a boarding school in Owyhee, education has long been important to the Duck Valley Shoshone-Paiute people. Today, students attend the Owyhee Combined Schools, part of the Elko County School District. The tribe honors past and present men and women of the tribe who served in all branches the military from WWI to the Middle Eastern theaters of war or as nineteenth-century Army Indian scouts.